Examination-arthritis- joint surface damage

The hallmark signs when examining for joint surface damage are signs associated with higher friction, felt on moving one joint surface on its opposing surface under compression. Fine crepitus Crepitus on joint movement can be heard but it usually needs to be felt. Active movement loads the joint and the examiner places a hand over…

Examination- ligament instability

Examination- ligament instability

The following ligaments or ligament complexes can be examined individually or in combination and the pattern of instability determined: Collateral ligaments Anterior Cruciate ligament Posterior Cruciate ligament Postero lateral corner Postero-medial corner i) Collateral ligament examination Understanding the anatomical structure and attachments of the collateral ligaments is important for accurate examination. The MCL is a…

Examination-patello-femoral joint

Examination-patello-femoral joint

Inspection of the patello-femoral joint is initially best performed with the patient sitting with the leg flexed over the edge of the couch, noting the following features or signs. Position of the patellae: The patella normally faces forward and slightly up. Facing higher indicates patella alta, and lower indicates patella baja. Position of the tibial…

Examination – Standing and Walking

Examination starts with a general examination of the knee followed by specific examination to confirm a specific diagnosis that has been indicated by the history. The history and examination should lead to a management plan that may involve further targeted investigations. General examination includes assessing the patient standing, walking and lying supine, and includes active,…

Conclusion of Clinical History

After taking the history then there should be a fairly good idea of the diagnosis or, if not likely diagnoses, then the main category of problem. Essentially the patient will be in one of four main categories: Anterior knee pain Traumatic injury to knee ligaments, meniscus or other structures Degenerative osteoarthritis Inflammatory joint problem

Symptoms In Detail

Pain In principle the site, nature, character and severity of pain are determined by specific questions.General Questions:Location (vague widespread suggesting patella-femoral source or localised to medial or lateral joint line)Nature (sharp, burning, dull ache etc)Exacerbating features (activity related or at rest)Pain radiation Progress over time (getting worse or better)Specific Scenarios: Pain on medial aspect of…