History and Examination of the Knee

Examination- ligament instability

The following ligaments or ligament complexes can be examined individually or in combination and the pattern of instability determined: Collateral ligaments Anterior Cruciate ligament Posterior Cruciate ligament Postero lateral corner Postero-medial corner i) Collateral ligament examination Understanding the anatomical structure and attachments of the collateral ligaments is important for accurate examination. The MCL is a…

History and Examination of the Knee

Examination – Supine

Examination supine involves a combination of look, feel and move. In order to look properly we need to feel the knee aiming to detect and confirm specific appearances and problems. General inspection: This takes into account evaluating alignment, position of the knee, skin problems, scars, muscle wasting, bruising for site of trauma, and the manner…

History and Examination of the Knee

Examination – Standing and Walking

Examination starts with a general examination of the knee followed by specific examination to confirm a specific diagnosis that has been indicated by the history. The history and examination should lead to a management plan that may involve further targeted investigations. General examination includes assessing the patient standing, walking and lying supine, and includes active,…

History and Examination of the Knee

Symptoms In Detail

Pain In principle the site, nature, character and severity of pain are determined by specific questions.General Questions:Location (vague widespread suggesting patella-femoral source or localised to medial or lateral joint line)Nature (sharp, burning, dull ache etc)Exacerbating features (activity related or at rest)Pain radiation Progress over time (getting worse or better)Specific Scenarios: Pain on medial aspect of…

History and Examination of the Knee

Introduction-Examination

There are many different individual tests and signs described in the knee and for most of these the sensitivity and specificity has not been adequately reported. Surgeons therefore tend to have a set of primary signs or findings that confirm a particular diagnosis backed up by a set of secondary or confirmatory signs. For example…